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Main Data
Author: Mariangela Biasiotti, Pompeu Casanovas, Giovanni Sartor, Meritxell Fernández-Barrera
Editor: Giovanni Sartor, Pompeu Casanovas, Mariangela Biasiotti, Meritxell Fernández-Barrera
Title: Approaches to Legal Ontologies Theories, Domains, Methodologies
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN/ISSN: 9789400701205
Edition: 1
Price: CHF 154.70
Publication date: 01/01/2010
Content
Category: Informatik, EDV Buch
Language: English
Technical Data
Pages: 282
Kopierschutz: DRM
Geräte: PC/MAC/eReader/Tablet
Formate: PDF
Table of contents
The book provides the reader with a unique source regarding the current theoretical landscape in legal ontology engineering as well as on foreseeable future trends for the definition of conceptual structures to enhance the automatic processing and retrieval of legal information in the Semantic Web framework. It will thus interest researchers in the domains of the SW, legal informatics, Artificial Intelligence and law, legal theory and legal philosophy, as well as developers of e-government applications based on the intelligent management of legal or public information to provide both back-office and front-office support.
Table of contents
Foreword: What LGTS Intends to Be6
Preface8
Contents10
Contributors12
1 Introduction: Theory and Methodology in Legal Ontology Engineering: Experiences and Future Directions15
1.1 Legal Ontologies Come of Age15
1.1.1 Legal Ontologies in Legal Thinking16
1.2 New Directions in Semantic Web Research: Rethinking Ontologies18
1.3 Approaches to Legal Ontologies: Experience and Future Directions23
References27
2 The Legal Theory Perspective: Doctrinal Conceptual Systems vs. Computational Ontologies29
2.1 Introduction. Legal Doctrine and Legal Theory as a Source for Building Legal Ontologies29
2.2 Legal Concepts: Striking a Balance Between Legal Interpretation and Ontological Categories31
2.2.1 The Mutual Dependence of Legal Concepts on Legal Norms32
2.2.2 Why Systems of Legal Concepts May Still Be Useful: The Interplay of Theoretical, Doctrinal and Sociological Analysis of Legal Contents36
2.3 Systems of Legal Concepts in Legal Doctrine37
2.3.1 System of Concepts, Their Topological and Semantic Properties and Methodology for Exploring Them38
2.3.2 System of Concepts in Ontologies40
2.3.3 Systems of Concepts in Legal Doctrine41
2.4 Types of Systems of Legal Concepts43
2.4.1 Degree of Abstraction43
2.4.2 Types of Semantic Relations46
2.4.3 Other Forms of Conceptual Organisation in Legal Doctrine51
2.5 A Mapping Between Doctrinal Conceptual Structures and Computational Ontologies54
2.6 Conclusions and Further Work57
References59
3 Empirically Grounded Developments of Legal Ontologies: A Socio-Legal Perspective62
3.1 Introduction: Wrestling with the Angel62
3.2 The Socio-Legal Approach: Pluralism and Legal Culture63
3.2.1 Legal Pluralism64
3.2.2 Legal Culture65
3.3 An Ontology-Enhanced Decision Support System for Judges: iuriservice66
3.3.1 Empirical-Based Design and Knowledge Acquisition67
3.3.2 The Ontology of Professional Judicial Knowledge71
3.3.3 User-Centered Approach: Expert Involvement73
3.4 Final Remarks76
References77
4 A Cognitive Science Perspective on Legal Ontologies81
4.1 Introduction81
4.2 Origins of Ontological Engineering82
4.2.1 Philosophy (1) Ontology82
4.2.2 Philosophy (2) Lingua Universalis Philosophica83
4.2.3 Artificial Intelligence84
4.2.4 Knowledge Engineering84
4.2.5 Semantic Web85
4.3 Knowledge and Semantics85
4.4 Formalisms, Reasoning and Information Management87
4.5 A CS Perspective for Top Ontologies89
4.6 Some Paradoxes for Conclusions91
References92
5 Social Ontology and Documentality94
5.1 Introduction94
5.2 Physical, Ideal and Social Objects95
5.3 The Discovery of Social Objects96
5.4 X Counts as Y in C97
5.5 No (Social) Thing Exists Outside Texts99
5.6 Object = Inscribed Act101
5.7 Documentality103
5.8 Conclusions106
References106
6 The Case-Based Reasoning Approach: Ontologies for Analogical Legal Argument109
6.1 Introduction109
6.2 Definitions and Roles109
6.3 Extended Example110
6.4 Requirements for a Case-Based Legal Ontology114
6.4.1 For Representing Cases115
6.4.2 For Explaining Case Decisions116
6.4.3 For Representing Case-Based Arguments118
6.5 Using the Ontology to Model Arguments with Hypothetical Cases118
6.6 Challenges for a CBR Ontology120
6.7 Conclusions123
References124
7 A Complex-System Approach: Legal Knowledge, Ontology, Information and Networks126
7.1 Introduction126
7.2 Ontology Development: Dealing with Natural Language127
7.3 A Complex-Systems Approach Applied to Legal Corpus and Legal Ontology131
7.4 Mapping an Ontology on a Corpus via a Probability Measure132
7.5 Ontology, Information and Legal Corpus135
7.6 Scaling Issues in the Ontology Mapping137
7.7 Discussion and Perspectives139
7.7.1 Discussion about Information Functions in Ontology Building139
7.7.2 The Complex Systems Approach and the Human Expertise140
References140
8 The Multi-Layered Legal Information Perspective142
8.1 Introduction142
8.2 The Interoperability Issue143
8.3 The Multilayered Legal Information Perspective: A Tentative Procedural Model145
8.4 A Scenario145
References149
9 Legal Ontologies: The Linguistic Perspective151
9.1 Introduction151
9.2 Language and Law152
9.3 Legal Text Analysis154
9.3.1 The Semantics of Textual Structures154
9.3.2 The Construction of Legal Concepts155
9.3.3 The Computational Models156
9.4 A Bottom--Up Methodology for Ontology Building158
9.4.1 Lexical Ontologies158
9.4.2 Anchoring Terminologies to a Reference Ontology160
9.5 The Next Step: Frames Detection162
9.6 The Gap Between Text and Knowledge165
9.6.1 Bridging the Gap Between Text and Knowledge165
9.6.2 Some Practical Applications168
9.6.2.1 Definitional Techniques168