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Main Data
Author: Maureen M. Jonas
Editor: Maureen M. Jonas
Title: Viral Hepatitis in Children Unique Features and Opportunities
Publisher: Humana Press
ISBN/ISSN: 9781607613732
Edition: 1
Price: CHF 178.50
Publication date: 01/01/2010
Content
Category: Medizin & Pharmazie
Language: English
Technical Data
Pages: 174
Kopierschutz: DRM
Geräte: PC/MAC/eReader/Tablet
Formate: PDF
Table of contents
Acute and chronic viral hepatitis infections are serious public health threats around the world. The different infections have different epidemiology and natural his- ries, and children play important roles in each of these. For example, children are important reservoirs for acute hepatitis A, childhood infections are responsible for most of the global morbidity associated with chronic hepatitis B, and perinatal transmission of hepatitis C continues to occur, even as the overall incidence of new infections wanes. Some non-A through E viral hepatitis infections are seen p- dominantly in infants and young children, while others have specific implications for this population. Therapeutic options for children with chronic viral hepatitis are limited when compared to those available for adults, especially for hepatitis B, and considerations given to long-term therapy have dramatic implications when dealing with the long life expectancy of these young patients. With these issues in mind, this unique volume has been created to address the special considerations regarding viral hepatitis in children. It includes the latest information and recommendations specifically directed at the pediatric population, and highlights the knowledge gaps which will need to be filled to improve our understanding of these infections and treatment of this special group. Experienced practitioners from around the world have contributed these reviews, incorporating the latest studies, the current recommendations, and the distinctive pediatric issues that shape clinical care, and will determine the research agenda for this field going forward.
Table of contents
Viral Hepatitisin Children2
Preface4
Contents5
Contributors6
Hepatitis A in Children8
Introduction8
Epidemiology9
United States9
Global10
Risk Factors11
The Virus11
Clinical Features12
Diagnosis13
Atypical HAV13
Treatment15
Prevention15
Immunoprophylaxis15
Vaccination Implications16
Public Health Implications16
Current Trends17
References17
Epidemiology and Natural History of Hepatitis B in Children19
Introduction19
Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Children Before the Era of Immunization Programs20
Global20
North America20
Europe21
Asia-Pacific Region21
Africa22
HBV Transmission in Children22
The Effect of HBV Immunization in Children and Adolescents23
Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Children24
Acute HBV Infection25
Fulminant Hepatitis B26
Chronic HBV Infection26
Phase 1: Immune Tolerance Phase27
Phase 2: Inflammatory (Immune Active) Phase27
Phase 3: Low Replication Phase (Inactive Carrier State)28
Phase 4: Reactivation Phase (HBeAg Negative Chronic Hepatitis B)28
Factors Affecting the Natural Course of Hepatitis B Virus Infection29
Maternal Factors29
Viral Factors29
Host Factors30
Conclusions30
References30
Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B in Children35
Introduction36
Acute Hepatitis B36
Chronic Hepatitis B36
Virological Responses38
Clinical Responses38
Biochemical Responses38
Histopathological Responses39
Medications39
Interferon39
HBV Polymerase Inhibitors43
Chronic Hepatitis B and Organ Transplantation49
Chronic HBV Infections and Renal Disease50
HBV and Hepatitis D Virus Co-infection51
Hepatitis C and B Virus Co-infection51
Chronic HBV and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-infection52
Summary53
References53
Epidemiology and Natural History of Hepatitis C in Children60
Introduction60
Molecular Biology61
Epidemiology62
Acute HCV63
Perinatally Acquired HCV64
Immune Response and HCV65
HCV and Autoimmunity65
Natural History66
HCV and HIV67
Conclusion68
References68
Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in Children72
Background72
Diagnosis and Evaluation74
General Considerations for Treatment76
Approved Treatments78
Interferon-a78
Ribavirin79
Pegylated-Interferon79
Adverse Events Associated with CHC Treatment81
Interferons81
Ribavirin83
Treatment of Non-Responders and Those Who Relapse83
Treatment of Special Pediatric Populations84
Patients with Thalassemia84
Patients with Viral Coinfections84
Transplantation85
Treatments in Development85
Summary86
References87
Hepatitis D and Hepatitis E in Children93
Hepatitis D93
Description94
Epidemiology94
Clinical Features95
Hepatitis D in Children98
Pathogenesis98
Diagnosis98
Treatment100
Prevention101
Hepatitis E10