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Main Data
Editor: Walmor C. DeMello, Edward D. Frohlich
Title: Renin Angiotensin System and Cardiovascular Disease
Publisher: Humana Press
ISBN/ISSN: 9781607611868
Edition: 1
Price: CHF 202.30
Publication date: 01/01/2009
Content
Category: Medizin & Pharmazie
Language: English
Technical Data
Pages: 300
Kopierschutz: DRM
Geräte: PC/MAC/eReader/Tablet
Formate: PDF
Table of contents

This book offers the latest research into the role of the renin angiotensin system on cardiac and vascular functions and in cardiovascular diseases. It covers vital aspects such as intracellular signaling and regulation of cell volume in the failing heart.

Table of contents
Preface5
Contents6
Contributors8
1 Systemic Versus Local Renin Angiotensin Systems.An Overview11
References14
2 Clinical Import of the Local Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Systems16
2.1 The Classical System16
2.2 The Local Systems17
2.3 Structural and Function Response of Organs to Salt-Loading19
2.4 Secondary Organ Responses of Therapy to Certain Treatment20
2.5 Toxemias of Pregnancy20
References21
3 Renin, Prorenin, and the (Pro)Renin Receptor24
3.1 List of Abbreviations24
3.1 Introduction24
3.2 Renin and Prorenin25
3.2.1 Renin25
3.2.2 Prorenin26
3.3 The (Pro)Renin Receptor26
3.3.1 Biochemistry of the (P)RR27
3.3.2 (P)RR in Experimental Models of Cardiovascular and Renal Diseases29
3.3.3 Unexpected Properties and Ontogeny of the (P)RR30
3.4 Conclusion31
References31
4 Local Renin Angiotensin Systems in the Cardiovascular System34
4.1 Introduction34
4.2 Studies in Man36
4.3 Studies in Animal Models37
4.3.1 Cardiac RAS37
4.3.2 Adrenal RAS38
4.3.3 Renal RAS38
4.3.4 Intracellular RASs39
4.4 Conclusion40
References40
5 Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System and Pathobiology of Hypertension44
5.1 Blood Vessels45
5.2 The Kidney51
5.3 The Heart54
5.4 The Brain and the Sympathetic Nervous System55
5.5 Conclusion56
References57
6 AT1 Receptors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockade,and Clinical Hypertensive Disease67
6.1 Introduction67
6.2 Emerging Concepts of AT 1R Regulation and Action70
6.2.1 Ang II-Independent Activation of AT1Rs70
6.2.2 AT1R-Activating Autoantibodies71
6.2.3 G Protein Receptor-Interacting Proteins and AT 1Rs73
6.2.4 Receptor Cross-Talk and Dimerization75
6.3 Considerations in the Use of ARBs for Hypertension76
6.3.1 Importance of Renal AT1 Rs in the Control of Blood Pressure76
6.3.2 AT2 R Activation in Response to AT1R Blockade77
6.3.3 Clinical Efficacy Trials of ARBs in Hypertension77
6.3.4 Pleiotropic Actions of ARBs79
6.4 Combination Therapy80
6.5 Conclusions81
References82
7 Structural and Electrophysiological Remodeling of the Failing Heart88
7.1 Morphologic and Functional Abnormalities in the Failing Heart88
7.2 On the Role of the Renin Angiotensin System89
7.3 On the Harmful Effects of Angiotensin II89
7.4 On the Beneficial Effects of Chronic Blockade of Ang II AT1 Receptors90
7.5 On the Influence of Extracellular and Intracellular Renin on Cardiac Function91
7.6 Oxidative Stress, Angiotensin II, and Heart Failure91
7.7 Ang (1-7) Counteracts the Effects of Ang II. But is the Overexpression of ACE2 Arrhythmogenic?92
7.8 Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System and Regulation of Cell Volume. Intracrine Versus Extracellular Renin. An Integrated Hypothesis92
7.9 Aldosterone and Heart Failure. On the Beneficial Effects of Eplerenone94
7.10 Eplerenone Inhibits the Intracrine Action of Angiotensin II in the Failing Heart94
References95
8 Inhibiting the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System in Patients with Heart Failure and Myocardial Infarction99
8.1 Heart Failure99
8.1.1 Angiotensin Receptor Blockers100
8.1.2 Aldosterone Antagonist100
8.1.3 Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function Heart Failure101
8.1.4 Combining RAAS Inhibitors in the Treatment of Heart Failure101
8.1.5 Beta-Blockers102
8.1.6 Triple RAAS Inhibitor Combinations102
8.2 Myocardial Infarction103
8.2.1 Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)103
8.2.2 Combining RAAS Inhibitors in Myocardial Infarction Treatment: ACE Inhibitor Plus ARB104
8.2.3 RAAS Inhibitor and Beta-Blocker104
8.2.4 ACE Inhibitor, Beta-Blockers, and Mineralocorticoid Blocker105
8.2.5 Direct Renin Inhibitor105
8.2.6 Safety105
References106
9 Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Treatment with Renin Angiotensin System Inhibition109
9.1 Introduction109
9.2 Role of the RAS in the Development of Hypertensive LVH110
9.2.1 General Mechanisms of LVH110
9.2.2 Role of Angiotensin II in Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Myocardial Remodeling112
9.3 Effects of Pharmacological Inhibition of the RAS onHypertensive LVH115
9.3.1 General Aspects115
9.3.2 Emerging Clinical Aspects116
9.3.3 Emerging Pharmacological Aspects117
9.3.4 Emerging Molecular Aspects119
9.4 Concluding Remarks120
References120
10 Angiotensin-(1-7), Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2,and New Components of the Renin Angiotensin System126
10.1 Introduction126
10.2 Angiotensin-(1-7): Gaining Favor in the 21st Century128
10.3 ACE2: A Critical Enzyme Regulator in the Heart130
10.4 Angiotensin-(1-12)132
10.5 Conclusions133
References133
11 Kinin Receptors and ACE Inhibitors: An Interrelationship 139
11.1 ACE Inhibitors and Kinin B1 Receptors141
11.2 ACE Inhibitors and Kinin B2 Receptors143
11.3 Other Considerations147
11.4 Similarities in the Development of Concepts: Kinins and Angiotensin 148
11.5 Epilogue149
References149
12 Kinins and Cardiovascular Disease155
12.1 Introduction156
12.2 The Kinin-Generating System157
12.3 The Kallikrein-Kinin System in the Vasculature and in the Regulation of Local Blood Flow161
12.4 Kinins in the Regulation of Renal Blood Flow162
12.5 Kinins in the Regulation of Water and Electrolyte Excretion163
12.6 Kinins as Regulators of Blood Pressure and Pathogenesis of Hypertension165
12.7 Role of Kinins in the Antihypertensive Effect of ACE