Autor: Florian Resatsch
Titel: Ubiquitous Computing Developing and Evaluating Near Field Communication Applications
Verlag: Gabler Verlag
ISBN/ISSN: 9783834986832
Auflage: 1
Preis : CHF 98.50
Kategorie: Informatik, EDV Buch
Sprache: English
Technische Daten
Seiten: 274
Kopierschutz: DRM
Geräte: PC/MAC/eReader/Tablet
Formate: PDF
Florian Resatsch investigates the optimal strategies for developing and evaluating ubiquitous computing applications based on Near Field Communication. He offers a range of design guidelines for NFC applications in four categories: NFC technology, tag infrastructure, devices, and human factors.

Dr. Florian Resatsch completed his doctoral thesis under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Helmut Krcmar at the Chair of Information Systems at the Technische Universität München (TUM). He is the managing partner and co-founder of a company focused on object and location-based information services.
3 Human Computer Interaction and Technology Acceptance (p. 46-47)

The focus of this chapter is to state the basic requirements of NFC-based applications relative to human-computer interaction theory (Chapter 3.1). It also seeks to further integrate the technology acceptance models to be applied into the Ubicomp setting (Chapter 3.2).

3.1 Human Computer Interaction

The connection between human computer interaction (HCI) and Ubicomp was discussed from Ubicomp’s early stages up to today (Abowd 1996; Abowd/Atkeson/Essa 1998; Abowd et al. 1998; Abowd/Mynatt/Rodden 2002). Abowd also discussed the effects of prototypes in the area of Ubicomp to facilitate technology diffusion (Abowd et al. 2005). Interfaces of various kinds were discussed intensely in Ubicomp literature—especially because the use of haptic elements, such as RFID chips, changes the established forms of interaction familiar from desktop computers (Henseler 2001; Michelis et al. 2005; Poupyrev/Okabe/Maruyama 2004; Ishii/Ullmer 1997; Blackler/Popovic/Mahar 2003; Öquist 2006; Thevenin/Coutaz 1999; Ballagas et al. 2003; Tan 2000; Shneiderman 1992; Raskin 2000; Mantyjarvi et al. 2006; Välkkynen et al. 2003).

Only few of the known literature approaches discuss the effects of everyday activities and principles associated with routine tasks, although these effects were part of the Ubicomp vision and are relevant for building systems that will be accepted by users (Mattern 2003b, 2003c, 2005b; McCullough 2004; Weiser 1993).

Human beings have one thing in common: an everyday life and the range of actions that life encompasses. The Ubicomp definition presented included applications within the everyday action range of human beings (see section 2.1.1). This everyday life is determined by several factors that loop back to the development of—and the interaction with—Ubicomp applications.

Ubicomp use is quite different from desktop computer use. Daily life centers around activity spaces (Golledge/Stimson 1997) within specific contexts. With a link from the virtual into the physical world, an interaction design off the desktop becomes essential (McCullough 2004; Norman 1988). Ubicomp applications should function only when we want them to and in a way in which we do not need to know how they function.

These “information appliances” (Norman 1999b, 53) allow people to carry out tasks without needing to be aware of the computers that are involved (McCullough 2004). Simplicity, as already stated, is the primary motivation driving the design of information appliances. Design the tool to fit so well that it becomes a part of the task (Norman 1999b, 53). This design credo describes a way of creating computers so that they are invisible to us perceptually, i.e. so that we are not conscious of them.

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is defined as “a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them.” The focus is “specifically on interaction between one or more humans and one or more computational machines”, which together form an adequate context for Ubicomp (Hewett et al. 1992). HCI has two sides, both the machine and the human side, connected via an interface. An interface can exist in different ways. Raskin gives a broad definition: “The way that you accomplish tasks with a product—what you do and how it responds” (Raskin 2000).
List of Figures17
List of Tables20
1 Introduction25
1.1 Field of Investigation26
1.2 Research Problem28
1.3 Research Questions and Objectives31
1.4 Methodology32
1.5 Thesis Structure36
2 Theoretical Framework39
2.1 Ubiquitous Computing39
2.1.1 Definition39
2.1.2 Building Blocks41
2.1.3 Technologies42
2.1.4 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)44 Standards44 RFID Tag and Data45 Capacity46 Shapes and Form46 Frequencies47 Transmission48 Readers and Connectivity49 Cost50
2.1.5 Near Field Communication (NFC)51 NFC Forum Technology Architecture51 Mobile NFC Architecture53 Available NFC Phones54 Developing with NFC56 NFC Tags57
2.1.6 RFID and NFC Information Systems58
2.2 Ubiquitous Computing Technologies and the Consumer59
2.2.1 Categorization of Applications Using the Example of RFID59
2.2.2 User Awareness and Perception of RFID61
2.3 The Importance of Prototyping68
3 Human Computer Interaction and Technology Acceptance70
3.1 Human Computer Interaction70
3.1.1 Human Aspects71 The End-User71 Behavioral Constraints of the End-User72 Everyday Tasks73 Cognitive Limitations74 Context-Sensitive Applications to Limit the Cognitive Load76
3.1.2 Human Computer Interface77 Multimodal Interaction78 Haptic Interfaces79 Affordances81 The Interaction Design of an Everyday Task81 Interaction between Physical Objects and Mobile Devices82
3.1.3 Summary: Preliminary Set of Requirements84
3.2 Technology Acceptance87
3.2.1 Technology Acceptance Evaluation in Ubiquitous Computing87
3.2.2 Innovation Adoption88
3.2.3 Technology Acceptance Models92 Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)93 Theory of Reasoned Action / Theory of Planned Behaviour (TRA/TPB)93 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)94 Task-Technology Fit (TTF)95 Motivational Model (MM)96 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)96 Critical Assessment of Acceptance Models106
3.2.4 Summary: Technology Acceptance and Implications107
4 Designing an Ubiquitous Computing Application Development and Evaluation Process Model (UCAN)109
4.1 Ubiquitous Computing Application Development109
4.1.1 Determining Initial Requirements110
4.1.2 Challenges112
4.1.3 End-User Integration113
4.1.4 Prototypes114
4.1.5 System Engineering and Prototyping116
4.2 Evaluating Ubicomp Applications117
4.2.1 Challenges117
4.2.2 Evaluating Prototypes118
4.2.3 Evaluation in Specific Prototype Phases120
4.3 A-priori: The Ubiquitous Computing Application Development and Evaluation Process Model (UCAN)125
4.4 Selection of Case Studies126
4.4.1 NFC Applications126 Technology Push127 Market Pull127
4.4.2 Selection Criteria127
4.4.3 Motivation129
4.4.4 Conducting the Case Studies130
4.4.5 Overview131
5 From Initial Idea to Low-Fidelity Prototype: Easymeeting and the Mobile Prosumer133
5.1 Easymeeting: Meeting Room Management System133
5.1.1 Vision of a Motivating Application134
5.1.2 General Problem: Ubiquitous Computing in a Work Environment135
5.1.3 Initial Idea135
5.1.4 Evaluation of the Initial Idea135
5.1.5 Refined Idea136
5.1.6 Low-Fidelityy Prototypee139
5.1.7 Evaluation of the Low-Fidelity Prototype142 Research Methodology142 Sample143 Data Collection and Data Coding143
5.1.8 Evaluation Results of the Low-Fidelity Prototype144 Evaluation ResultsQualitative with Talking out Loud Method144 Evaluation ResultsQuantitative According UTAUT Items145
5.1.9 Refined Use Case148
5.1.10 Summary of the ResultsEasymeeting150 Improve and Theorize about the Developed Process Model (UCAN)150 Preparing Design Guidelines152
5.2 Mobile Prosumer: Smart Product Information System at the Point of Sale154
5.2.1 Vision of a Motivating Application156
5.2.2 General Problem: Smart Products and Information Services156