Metaphysics in general has a wide meaning for a variety of philosophical thoughts and ideas.
The modern term of metaphysics stems from the Greek philosopher Aristotle who wrote a treatise on metaphysics. The Encyclopædia Britannica writes about the nature and scope of metaphysics: "The Latin singular noun metaphysica was derived from the Greek title and used both as the title of Aristotles treatise and as the name of its subject matter. Accordingly, metaphysica is the root of the words for metaphysics in almost all western European languages (e.g., metaphysics, la metaphysique, die Metaphysik)." 
Many people think of metaphysics as the description for anything supernatural, which can't be grasped by mind. Indeed, parts of metaphysics goes beyond what can be proven by the methods of todays natural sciences, i.e. physics. Often it is falsely ascribed to the unexplainable world of mysticism. Rather the true meaning of metaphysics is explained by the philosophy of metaphysics, which explains that metaphysics would be understood with scientific means, if we only had the tools to grasp it, like we can do with physical and material things today.
In any case, diverse theories have been created around the term 'metaphysics' in East and West. Muslim philosophers like al-Kindi (800 - 873), ar-Razi (854 - 925), al-Farabi (872 - 950), Avicenna (980 - 1037), Thabit ibn Qurra (836 - 901), Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani (1838 - 1897), Muhammad Iqbal (1877 - 1938) and Gary Carl Muhammad Legenhausen (born 1953), to name just a few of them, shaped philosophy in the Islamic East. René Descartes (15961650), Benedict de Spinoza (163277), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (16461716), Immanuel Kant (17241804), G.W.F. Hegel (17701831), Arthur Schopenhauer (17881860), Ludwig Wittgenstein (18891951), and the famous Martin Heidegger (1889 - 1976) on the other hand shaped philosophy in the Christian West.
The American philosopher William James (18421910), who connected religion with psychology, said, Metaphysics means only an unusually obstinate attempt to think clearly and consistently. 
To deal with all the philosophic aspects of metaphysics would go beyond the scope of this book. This chapter will deal with the subject of 'Identity and Change' in Islamic theory of metaphysics.
Concerning the question of 'Identity and change (of destiny)', the US writer C.S. Lewis (1898 - 1963) confirmed that you can meaningfully pray and thus determine the outcome of developments while both your prayer as well as past events have an influence on the final result. Lewis wrote: "My free act contributes to the cosmic shape." 
Islamic teaching deal with this issue on a large-scale basis. It is claimed in the article "Arabic and Islamic Metaphysics" by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: "The beginnings of Arabic philosophy coincide with the production of the first extensive translation of Aristotles Metaphysics, within the circle of translators associated with the founder of Arabic philosophy, al-Kind." 
Aristotle may have written his theory which was called Metaphysics then, but has little to do with the beginnings of Islamic metaphysics itself, it even has little to do with the general term of metaphysics, as we can later see.
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