Main Data
Author: Bilal Baki
Title: Ways of the World Explained through the Philosophy of Islam
Publisher: BookRix
ISBN/ISSN: 9783736874855
Edition: 1
Price: CHF 1.00
Publication date: 01/01/2020
Category: Pädagogik
Language: English
Technical Data
Pages: 168
Kopierschutz: Wasserzeichen
Geräte: PC/MAC/eReader/Tablet
Formate: ePUB
Table of contents
We live in a time, where all people, in particular young people, suffer from stress and burnout. Confusion about life and its ways is on the rise and far too many people are unable to cope with new challenges. While mass media hypnotises people into getting entertained through streaming series and movies, the number of those who read books drop dramatically. Books that show how to implement theoretical principles into everyday life are necessary for everyone. Reading books is work instead of entertainment. For the seekers of peace and for those, who try to improve their understanding of the current era, a collection of Islamic wisdom as well as Islamic practical advice is contained in this book. The chapters in this book deal with many diverse subjects, like sciences, religion, psychology and philosophy. Each chapter defines the human possibilities in order to bring change. A full description on what kind of education is useful for young people to learn, according to contemporary scientists, is part of this book, as well as humanitarian aspects, which are described through verses of the Holy Quran and narrations of the Holy Prophet. Especially the young generation's task is to speak up in order to change the world. Any negligence would be fatal for humans. It is people's responsibilities to shape the world.
Table of contents

Islamic metaphysics

Metaphysics in general has a wide meaning for a variety of philosophical thoughts and ideas.

The modern term of metaphysics stems from the Greek philosopher Aristotle who wrote a treatise on metaphysics. The Encyclopædia Britannica writes about the nature and scope of metaphysics: "The Latin singular noun metaphysica was derived from the Greek title and used both as the title of Aristotles treatise and as the name of its subject matter. Accordingly, metaphysica is the root of the words for metaphysics in almost all western European languages (e.g., metaphysics, la metaphysique, die Metaphysik)." [1]

Many people think of metaphysics as the description for anything supernatural, which can't be grasped by mind. Indeed, parts of metaphysics goes beyond what can be proven by the methods of todays natural sciences, i.e. physics. Often it is falsely ascribed to the unexplainable world of mysticism. Rather the true meaning of metaphysics is explained by the philosophy of metaphysics, which explains that metaphysics would be understood with scientific means, if we only had the tools to grasp it, like we can do with physical and material things today.

In any case, diverse theories have been created around the term 'metaphysics' in East and West. Muslim philosophers like al-Kindi (800 - 873), ar-Razi (854 - 925), al-Farabi (872 - 950), Avicenna (980 - 1037), Thabit ibn Qurra (836 - 901), Jamal ad-Din al-Afghani (1838 - 1897), Muhammad Iqbal (1877 - 1938) and Gary Carl Muhammad Legenhausen (born 1953), to name just a few of them, shaped philosophy in the Islamic East. René Descartes (15961650), Benedict de Spinoza (163277), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (16461716), Immanuel Kant (17241804), G.W.F. Hegel (17701831), Arthur Schopenhauer (17881860), Ludwig Wittgenstein (18891951), and the famous Martin Heidegger (1889 - 1976) on the other hand shaped philosophy in the Christian West.
The American philosopher William James (18421910), who connected religion with psychology, said, Metaphysics means only an unusually obstinate attempt to think clearly and consistently. [1]

To deal with all the philosophic aspects of metaphysics would go beyond the scope of this book. This chapter will deal with the subject of 'Identity and Change' in Islamic theory of metaphysics.

Concerning the question of 'Identity and change (of destiny)', the US writer C.S. Lewis (1898 - 1963) confirmed that you can meaningfully pray and thus determine the outcome of developments while both your prayer as well as past events have an influence on the final result. Lewis wrote: "My free act contributes to the cosmic shape." [2]

Islamic teaching deal with this issue on a large-scale basis. It is claimed in the article "Arabic and Islamic Metaphysics" by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: "The beginnings of Arabic philosophy coincide with the production of the first extensive translation of Aristotles Metaphysics, within the circle of translators associated with the founder of Arabic philosophy, al-Kind." [3]

Aristotle may have written his theory which was called Metaphysics then, but has little to do with the beginnings of Islamic metaphysics itself, it even has little to do with the general term of metaphysics, as we can later see.
From the histor